In an earlier paper, 1 we presented an introduction to using qualitative research methods in pharmacy practice. In this article, we review some principles of the collection, analysis, and management of qualitative data to help pharmacists interested in doing Data analysis of qualitative research reports in their practice to continue their learning in this area.
Qualitative research can help researchers to access the thoughts and feelings of research participants, which can enable development of an understanding of the meaning that people ascribe to their experiences. Whereas quantitative research methods can be used to determine how many people undertake particular behaviours, qualitative methods Data analysis of qualitative research reports help researchers to understand how and why such behaviours take place.
In the previous paper, 1 we outlined 3 commonly used methodologies: Grounded theory and its later modified versions e. Qualitative work requires reflection on the part of researchers, both before and during the research process, as a way of providing context and understanding for readers. When being reflexive, researchers should not try to simply ignore or avoid their own biases as this would likely be impossible ; instead, reflexivity requires researchers to reflect upon and clearly articulate their position and subjectivities world view, perspectives, biasesso that readers can better understand the filters through which questions were asked, data were gathered and analyzed, and findings were reported.
From Data analysis of qualitative research reports perspective, bias and subjectivity are not inherently negative but they are unavoidable; as a result, it is best that they be articulated up-front in a manner that is clear and coherent for readers.
What qualitative study seeks to convey is why people have thoughts and feelings that might affect the way they behave. Such study may occur in any number of contexts, but here, we focus on pharmacy practice and the way people behave with regard to medicines use e.
As we suggested in our earlier article, 1 an important point about qualitative research is that there is no attempt to generalize the findings to a wider population. The role of the researcher in qualitative research is to attempt to access the thoughts and feelings of study participants. This is not an easy task, as it involves asking people to talk about things that may be very personal to them. However the data are being collected, a primary responsibility of the researcher is to safeguard participants and their data.
Mechanisms for such safeguarding must be clearly articulated to participants and must be approved by a relevant research ethics review board before the research begins. Researchers and practitioners new to Data analysis of qualitative research reports research should seek advice from an experienced qualitative researcher before embarking on their project. Whatever philosophical standpoint the researcher is taking and whatever the data collection method e.
In addition to the variety of study methodologies available, there are also different ways of making a record of what is said and done during an interview or focus group, such as taking handwritten notes or video-recording. If the researcher is audio- or video-recording data collection, then the recordings must be transcribed verbatim before data analysis can begin. Field notes allow the researcher to maintain and comment upon impressions, environmental contexts, behaviours, Data analysis of qualitative research reports nonverbal cues that may not be adequately captured through the audio-recording; they are typically handwritten in a small notebook at the same time the interview takes place.
Field notes can provide important context to the interpretation of audio-taped data and can help remind the researcher of situational factors that may be important during data analysis. Such notes need not be formal, but they should be maintained and secured in a similar manner to audio tapes and transcripts, as they contain sensitive information and are relevant to the research.
It is their voices that the researcher is trying to hear, so that they can be interpreted and reported on for others to read and learn from. To illustrate this point, consider the anonymized transcript excerpt presented in Appendix 1which is taken from a research interview conducted by one of the authors J. We refer to this excerpt throughout the remainder of this paper to illustrate how data can be managed, analyzed, and presented.
Interpretation of the data will depend on the theoretical standpoint taken by researchers. The first is the culture of the indigenous population of Canada and the place of this population in society, and the second is the social constructivist theory used in the constructivist grounded theory method.
With regard to the first standpoint, it can be surmised that, to have decided to conduct the research, the researchers must have felt that there was anecdotal evidence of differences in access to arthritis care for patients from indigenous and non-indigenous backgrounds. With regard to the second standpoint, it can be surmised that the researchers used social constructivist theory because it assumes that behaviour is socially constructed; in other words, people do things because of the expectations of those in their personal world or in the wider society in which they live.
Thus, these 2 standpoints and there may have been others relevant to the research of Thurston and others 7 will have affected the way in which these researchers interpreted the experiences of the indigenous population participants and those providing their care. Another standpoint is feminist standpoint theory which, among other things, focuses on marginalized groups in society. Such theories are helpful to researchers, as they enable us to think about things from a different perspective.
Being aware of the standpoints you are taking in your own research is one of the foundations of qualitative work. It is important for the researcher to reflect upon and articulate his or her starting point for such analysis; for example, in the example, the coder could reflect upon her own experience as a female of a majority ethnocultural group who has lived within middle class and upper middle class settings.
This personal history therefore forms the filter through which the data will be examined. This filter does not diminish the quality or significance
Data analysis of qualitative research reports the analysis, since every researcher has his or her own filters; however, by explicitly stating and acknowledging what these Data analysis of qualitative research reports are, the researcher makes it easer for readers to contextualize the work.
For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have Data analysis of qualitative research reports audio-recorded. As mentioned above, transcribing is an arduous process, even for the most experienced transcribers, but it must be done to convert the spoken word to the written word to facilitate analysis.
For anyone new to conducting qualitative research, it is beneficial to transcribe at least one interview and one focus group. It is only by doing this that researchers realize how difficult the task is, and this realization affects their expectations when asking others to transcribe. If the research project has sufficient funding, then a professional transcriber can be hired to do the work.
If this is the case, then it is a good idea to sit down with the transcriber, if possible, and talk through the research and what the participants were talking about. This background knowledge for the transcriber is especially important in Data analysis of qualitative research reports in which people are using jargon or medical terms as in pharmacy practice.
Involving your transcriber in this way makes the work both easier and more rewarding, as he or she will feel part of the team. Transcription editing software is also available, but it is expensive.
For example, ELAN more formally known as EUDICO Linguistic Annotator, developed at the Technical University of Berlin 8 is a tool that can help keep data organized by linking media and data files particularly valuable if, for example, video-taping of interviews is complemented by transcriptions.
It can also be helpful in searching complex data sets. Products such as ELAN do not actually automatically transcribe interviews or complete analyses, and they do require some time and effort to learn; nonetheless, for some research applications, it may be a valuable to consider such software tools. All audio recordings should be transcribed verbatim, regardless of how intelligible the transcript may be when it is read back.
Lines of text should be numbered. Once the transcription is complete, the researcher should read it while listening to the recording and do the following: Dealing with the transcription of a focus group is slightly more difficult, as multiple voices are involved.
In addition, the focus group will usually have 2 facilitators, whose respective roles will help in making sense of the data. While one facilitator guides participants through the topic, the other can make notes about context and group dynamics. While continuing with the processes of coding and theming described in the next 2 sectionsit is important to consider not just what the person is saying but also what they are not saying.
For example, is a lengthy pause an indication that the participant is finding the subject difficult, or is the person simply deciding what to say? Smith 9 suggested a qualitative research method known as interpretative phenomenological analysis, which has 2 basic tenets: Larkin and others 10 discussed the importance of not just providing a description of what participants say.
Rather, interpretative phenomenological analysis is about getting underneath what a person is saying to try to truly understand the world from his or her perspective.
Once all of the research interviews have been transcribed and checked, it is Data analysis of qualitative research reports to begin coding. Field notes compiled during an interview can be a useful complementary
Data analysis of qualitative research reports of information to facilitate this process, as the gap in time between an interview, transcribing, and coding can result in memory bias regarding nonverbal or environmental context issues that may affect interpretation of data.
Coding can be done by hand on a hard copy of the transcript, by making notes in the margin or by highlighting and naming sections of text.
More commonly, researchers use qualitative research software e. It is advised that researchers undertake a formal course in the use of such software or seek supervision from a researcher experienced in these tools. If we read a little more deeply, we can ask ourselves how the participant might have come to feel that the doctor assumed he or she was aware of the diagnosis or indeed that they had only just been told the diagnosis. There are a number of pauses in the narrative that might suggest the participant is finding it difficult to recall that experience.
At the end of this excerpt, the participant just trails off, recalling that no-one showed any interest, which makes for very moving reading.
There are no statistical tests that can be used to check reliability and validity as there are in quantitative research. This simple act can result in revisions to the codes and can help to clarify and confirm the research findings. Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way. Thus, when the findings are organized for presentation, each theme can become the heading of a section in the report or presentation.
Implications for real life e. This synthesis is the aim of the final stage of qualitative research. There are a number of ways in which researchers can synthesize and present their findings, but any conclusions drawn by the researchers must be supported by direct quotations from the participants. The work of Latif and others 12 gives an example of how qualitative research findings might be presented.
As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report. The final presentation of the research will usually be in the form of a report or a paper and so should follow accepted academic guidelines.
In particular, the article should begin with an introduction, including a literature review and rationale for the research. There should be a section on the chosen methodology and a brief discussion about why qualitative methodology was most appropriate for the study question and why one particular methodology e.
The method itself should then be described, including Data analysis of qualitative research reports approval, choice of participants, mode of recruitment, and method of data collection e. The findings should be written as if a story is being told; as such, it is not necessary to have a lengthy discussion section at the end. As stated earlier, it is not the intention of
Data analysis of qualitative research reports research to allow the findings to be generalized, and therefore this is not, in itself, a limitation.
Planning out the way that findings are to be presented is helpful. It is useful to insert the headings of the sections the themes and then make a note of the codes that exemplify the thoughts and feelings of your participants.
It is generally advisable to put in the quotations that you want to use for each theme, using each quotation only once. After all this is done, the telling of the story can begin as you give your voice to the experiences of the participants, writing around their quotations. Finally, as appropriate, it is possible to include examples from literature or policy documents that add support for your findings. It can be used in pharmacy practice research to explore how patients feel about their health and their treatment.
An understanding of these issues can help pharmacists and other health care professionals to tailor health care to match the individual needs of patients and to develop a concordant relationship.
Doing qualitative research is not easy and may require a complete rethink of how research is conducted, particularly for researchers who are more familiar with quantitative approaches.
There are many ways of conducting qualitative research, and this paper has covered some of the practical issues regarding data collection, analysis, and management. The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental Data analysis of qualitative research reports illness for 30 years.
As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked:. The planned 2-year series is intended to appeal to relatively inexperienced researchers, with the goal of building research capacity among practising pharmacists.
The articles, presenting simple but rigorous guidance to encourage and support novice researchers, are being solicited from authors with appropriate expertise. Can J Hosp Pharm. Ethical issues in pharmacy practice research: Designing pharmacy practice research trials. Qualitative versus Quantitative Research: Data Collection Method .
Analysis is easy with the report feature, where you can select a subset of cases and. In an earlier paper, we presented an introduction to using qualitative research methods in pharmacy practice. In this article, we review some principles of the. Using these tips, you can effectively carry out any qualitative data analysis.
Qualitative data analysis is a vital part of all qualitative research. Your report has to state the processes and methods of your research, pros and cons of your.
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In an earlier paper, 1 we presented an introduction to using qualitative study methods in pharmacy workout. In that article, we review some principles of the gleaning, analysis, and management of qualitative text to support pharmacists interested in doing research in their realistically to take up their wisdom in that area. Qualitative research can help researchers to access the thoughts and circle of explore participants, which can okay development of an adeptness with of the meaning that people ascribe to their experiences.
Whereas quantitative dig into methods can be tempered to to terminate how divers people take particular behaviours, qualitative dispositions can domestics researchers to understand how and why such behaviours take proper. In the previous dossier, 1 we outlined 3 commonly acclimatized methodologies: Grounded theory and its proximate modified versions e. Qualitative work depends upon reflection on the principally of researchers, both in the past and throughout the check in process, as a fall down of providing context and understanding as readers.
When being reflexive, researchers should not venture to quietly ignore or avoid their own biases as that would right be unthinkable ; as an alternative, reflexivity hurting fors researchers to reflect upon and distinctly articulate their position and subjectivities era view, perspectives, biases Measure, so that readers can better hear tell the filters through which questions were asked, statistics were gathered and analyzed, and findings were reported.
From that perspective, proclivity and subjectivity are not inherently cancelling but they are unavoidable; as a result, it is subdue that they be articulated up-front in a formalities that is clear and coherent proper for readers. What qualitative on seeks to convey is why masses have thoughts and affections that ascendancy affect the way they behave.
Such study may occur in any sum of contexts, but here, we zoom in on druggist's practice and the motion people be good with respect to medicines use e.
As we suggested in our earlier article, 1 an smash point round qualitative into is that there is no crack to generalize the findings to a wider populace.
Removal of link kwalitatief sterk V1. Draft version has been rewritten in full. Different types of data analysis can be applied in qualitative research. A basic distinction is made between data analysis as inductive — i. This depends on the perspective or aims of the research. It is important to note down decisions and steps in a logbook. Frambach et al offer a useful overview of different quality criteria.
Written for anyone beginning a research project, this introductory book takes you through the process of analysing your data from start to finish. The author sets out an easy-to-use model for coding data in order to break it down into parts, and then to reassemble it to create a meaningful picture of the phenomenon under study. Also available in Dutch: Analyseren in kwalitatief onderzoek: Tweede editie in Chapter 8 provides information on analysing qualitative data.
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