Bathing is the washing of the body with a liquidusually water or an aqueous solution, or the immersion of the body in water.
It may be practiced for personal hygienereligious ritual or therapeutic purposes. By analogy, as a recreational activity, the term is also applied to sun bathing and sea bathing. Bathing can take place in any situation where there is water, ranging from warm to cold. It can take place in a bathtub or showeror it can be in a river, lake, water hole, pool or the seaor any other water receptacle.
The term for the act can vary. For example, a ritual religious bath is sometimes referred to as immersion, the use of water for therapeutic purposes can be called a water treatment or hydrotherapyand two recreational water activities are known as swimming and paddling.
Throughout history, societies devised systems to Nake girls washing there body water to be brought to population centres.
Ancient Indians used elaborate practices for personal hygiene with three daily baths and washing. These are recorded in the works called grihya sutras and are in practice today in some communities.
Ancient Greece utilized small bathtubs, wash basins, and foot baths for personal cleanliness. The earliest findings of baths date from the mid-2nd millennium BC in the palace complex at KnossosCrete, and the luxurious alabaster bathtubs excavated in AkrotiriSantorini. The Greeks established public baths and showers within gymnasiums for relaxation and personal hygiene.
Ancient Rome developed a network of aqueducts to supply water to all large towns and population centres and had indoor plumbing, with pipes that terminated in homes and at public wells and fountains. The Roman public baths were called thermae. With the fall of the Roman Empirethe aqueduct system "Nake girls washing there body" into disrepair and disuse.
Before the 7th century, the Japanese likely bathed in the many springs in the open, as there is no evidence of closed rooms. In the 6th to 8th centuries in the Asuka and Nara periods the Japanese absorbed the religion of Buddhism from China, which had a strong impact on the culture of the entire country. Buddhist temples traditionally included a bathhouse yuya for the monks. Due to the principle of purity espoused by Buddhism baths were eventually opened to the public.
Only the wealthy had private baths. The first public bathhouse was mentioned in These were built into natural caves or stone vaults. In iwaburo along the coast, the rocks were heated by burning wood, then sea water was poured over the rocks, producing steam. The entrances to these "bath houses" were very small, possibly to slow the escape of the heat and steam. There were no windows, so it was very dark inside and the user constantly coughed or cleared their throats in order to signal to new entrants which seats were already occupied.
The darkness could be also used to cover sexual contact. Because there was no gender distinction, these baths came into disrepute. They were finally abolished in on hygienic and moral grounds. Author John Gallagher says bathing "was segregated in the s as a concession to outraged Western tourists". At the beginning of the Edo period — there were two different types of baths. At that time shared bathrooms for men and women were the rule.
These bathhouses were very popular, especially for men. Inthe employment of yuna was generally prohibited, as well as mixed bathing. The segregation of the sexes, however, was often ignored by operators of bathhouses, or areas for men and women were separated only by a symbolic line.
Today, sento baths have separate rooms for men and women. Spanish chronicles describe the bathing habits of the peoples of Mesoamerica during and after the conquest.
Very neat and cleanly, bathing every day each afternoon As the steam accumulates in the upper part of the room a person in charge uses a bough to direct the
Nake girls washing there body to the bathers who are lying on the ground, with which he later gives them a massage, then the bathers scrub themselves with a small flat river stone and finally the person in charge introduces buckets with water with soap and grass used to rinse.
This bath had also ritual importance, and was vinculated to the goddess Toci ; it is also therapeutic when medicinal herbs are used in the water for the tlasas.
It is still used in Mexico. Christianity has always placed a strong emphasis on hygiene. The Church also built public bathing facilities that were separate for both sexes near monasteries and pilgrimage sites; also, the popes situated baths within church basilicas and monasteries since the early Middle Ages.
In the Middle Agesbathing commonly took place in public bathhouses. Public were also havens for prostitutionwhich created some opposition to them. Rich people bathed at home, most likely in their bedroom, as 'bath' rooms were not common. Bathing was done in large, wooden tubs with a linen cloth laid in it to protect the bather from splinters. Additionally, during the Renaissance and Protestant Reformationthe quality and condition of the clothing as opposed to the actual cleanliness of the body itself were thought to reflect the soul of an individual.
Clean clothing also reflected one's social status; clothes made the man or woman. Furthermore, from the late Middle Ages through to the end of the 18th century, etiquette and medical manuals advised people to only wash the parts of the body that were visible to the public; for example, the ears, hands, feet, and face and neck.
This did away with the public baths and left the cleaning of oneself to the privacy of one's home. The switch from woolen to linen clothing by the 16th century also accompanied the decline in bathing. Linen clothing is much easier to clean and maintain — and such clothing was becoming commonplace at the time in Western Europe. Clean linen shirts or blouses allowed people who had not bathed to appear clean and well groomed.
The possession of a large quantity of clean linen clothing was a sign of social status. Thus, appearance became more important than personal hygiene. Contemporary medical opinion also supported this claim. Physicians of the period believed that odors, or miasmasuch as that which would be found in soiled linens, caused disease. A person could therefore change one's shirt every few days, but avoid baths — which might let the "bad air" into the body through the pores.
Nake girls washing there body, in an age in which there were very few personal bathtubs, laundry was an important and weekly chore which was commonly undertaken by laundresses of the time.
Public opinion about bathing began to shift in the middle and late 18th century, when writers argued that frequent bathing might lead to better health. Two English works on the medical uses of water were published in the 18th century that inaugurated the new fashion for therapeutic bathing.
One of these was by Sir John Floyera physician of Lichfieldwho, struck by the remedial use of certain springs Nake girls washing there body the neighbouring peasantry, investigated the history of cold bathing and published a book on the subject in The other work was a publication by Dr James Currie of Liverpool on the use of hot and cold water in the treatment of fever and other illness, with a fourth edition published not long before his death in It was highly popular and first placed the subject on a scientific basis.
Hahn's writings had meanwhile created much enthusiasm among his countrymen, societies having been everywhere formed to promote the medicinal and dietetic use of water; and in Professor E. Oertel of Anspach republished them and quickened the popular movement by unqualified commendation of water drinking as a remedy for all diseases. Kneipp's own book My Water Cure was published in with many subsequent editions, and translated into many languages.
Claridge was responsible for introducing and promoting hydropathy in Britain, first in London inthen with lecture tours in Ireland and Scotland in Large public baths such as those found in the ancient world and the Ottoman Empire were revived during the 19th century.
The first modern public baths were opened in Liverpool in The first known warm fresh-water public wash house was opened in May The popularity of wash-houses was spurred by the newspaper interest in Kitty Wilkinsonan Irish immigrant "wife of a labourer" who became known as the Saint of the Slums.
In Wilkinson was appointed baths superintendent. In Birmingham, around ten private baths were available in the s.
Whilst the dimensions of the baths were small, they provided a range of services. Monro who had had premises in Lady Well and Snow Hill. On 22 April and 23 Apriltwo lectures were delivered in the town hall urging the provision of public baths in Birmingham and other towns and cities.
After a period of campaigning by many committees, the Public Baths and Wash-houses Act received royal assent on 26 August The Act empowered local authorities across the country to incur expenditure in constructing public swimming baths out of its own funds.
The first London public baths was opened at Goulston Square, Whitechapelin with the Prince consort laying the foundation stone. Traditional Turkish baths a variant of the Roman Nake girls washing there body were introduced to Britain by David Urquhartdiplomat and sometime Member of Parliament for Staffordwho for political and personal reasons wished to popularize Turkish culture. In he wrote The Pillars of Herculesa book about his travels in through Spain and Morocco.
He described the system of dry hot-air baths used there and in the Ottoman Empire which had changed little since Roman times.
In Richard Barter read Urquhart's book and worked with him to construct a bath. The following year, the first public bath of its type to be built in mainland Britain since Roman times was opened in Manchesterand the idea spread rapidly.
During the following years, over Turkish baths opened in Britain, including those built by municipal authorities as part of swimming pool complexes, taking advantage of the fact that water-heating boilers were already on site.
Similar baths opened in other parts of the British Empire. By the midth century, the English urbanised middle classes had formed an ideology of cleanliness that ranked alongside typical Victorian concepts, such as Christianityrespectability
Nake girls washing there body social progress.
The industry of soapmaking began on a small scale in the s, with the establishment of a soap manufactory at Tipton by James Keir and the marketing of high-quality, transparent soap in by Andrew Pears of London. It was in the midth century, though, that the large-scale consumption of soap Nake girls washing there body the middle classes, anxious to prove their social standing, drove forward the mass production and marketing of soap.
William Gossage produced low-priced, good-quality soap from the s. William Hesketh Lever and his brother, James, bought a small soap works in Warrington in and founded what is still one of the largest soap businesses, formerly called Lever Brothers and now called Unilever.
These soap businesses were among the first to employ large-scale advertising campaigns. Before the late 19th century, water to individual places of residence was rare.
London water supply infrastructure developed through major 19th-century treatment works built in response to cholera threats, to modern large-scale reservoirs.
By the end of the century, private baths with running hot water were increasingly common in affluent homes in Nake girls washing there body and Britain. At the beginning of the 20th century, a weekly Saturday night bath had become common custom for most of the population.
A half day's work on Saturday for factory Nake girls washing there body allowed them some leisure to prepare for the Sunday day of rest.
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